Now, physicists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) on the Swiss-French border are restarting the collider With the goal of understanding more about the Higgs boson and other subatomic particles and the mysteries of dark matter – an invisible and elusive substance that cannot be seen because it does not absorb, reflect or emit any light.
Consisting of a ring 27 kilometers (16.7 miles) in circumference, the Large Hadron Collider – located deep in the Alps – is made of superconducting magnets cooled to -271.3 °C (-456 °F), which is colder than outer space. It works by smashing small molecules together to allow scientists to observe them and see what’s inside.
“When we do research, we hope to find something unexpected, a surprise. That would be the best result. But of course the answer is in the hands of nature, and it depends on how nature answers the open questions in fundamental physics,” said Fabiola Gianotti, CERN’s director general, at Video posted on the CERN website.
“We are looking for answers to questions about dark matter, why the Higgs boson is so light, and many other open questions.”
Understanding the Higgs boson
Physicists François Englert and Peter Higgs first theorized the existence of the Higgs boson in the 1960s. The Standard Model of Physics lays out the basics of how elementary particles and forces interact in the universe. But the theory fails to explain how the particles actually get their mass. Particles or parts of matter range in size and can be larger or smaller than atoms. Electrons, protons, and neutrons, for example, are the subatomic particles that make up the atom. Scientists now We think the Higgs boson is the particle that gives all matter its mass.
In the final round of experiments, CERN scientists will study the properties of matter under extreme temperatures and density, and will also look for explanations. of dark matter and other new phenomena, either through direct searches or – indirectly – through precise measurements of known particle properties.
Dark matter is believed to make up most of the matter in The universe was previously discovered by its ability to create gravitational distortions in outer space.
Luca Malgiri, a spokesperson for CMS (Compact Money Solenoid), said one of the four largest experiments of the Large Hadron Collider: built around a massive electromagnet.